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Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
There are no controlled studies in breastfeeding women, however the risk of untoward effects to a breastfed infant is possible; or, controlled studies show only minimal non-threatening adverse effects. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant.
Typical usage: Managing hypocalcemia in patients undergoing dialysia for chronic renal failure. Renal osteodystrophy. Hypocalaemia and Hyperphosphataemia. Vitamin D dependent rickets, renal tubular osteomalacia.
Side Effects: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea.
Drug Interaction: Thiazides may increase the risk of hypercalcaemia. Some antiepileptics e.g. carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and primidone may increase vitamin D requirements.
Mechanism Of Action: Alfacalcidol is a precursor of the active calcitriol. It does not require renal hydroxylation but requires 25-hydroxylation in the liver for conversion to calcitriol.
Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
Drug which has been taken by a large number of breastfeeding mothers without any observed increase in adverse effects in the infant. Controlled studies in breastfeeding women fail to demonstrate a risk to the infant and the possibility of harm to the breastfeeding infant is remote; or the product is not orally bioavailable in an infant.
Typical usage: Calcium supplements are usually required where dietary calcium intake is deficient. This dietary requirement varies with age and is relatively greater in childhood, pregnancy and lactation due to an increased demand. Calcium supplement is also required in paused menopausal women and persons with osteopenia specially after the age of 60 years.
Side Effects: Hypotension, sinus bradycardia, cardiac arrest, thirst, headache, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation, abdominal pain, dry mouth, syncope, hypophosphatemia.
Drug Interaction: Calcium is known to interact with other drugs like alendronate (Na), calciferol, digitoxin, digoxin, etidronate (disodium), fluoride, iron salts, risedronate (Na), sodium fluoride, strontium ranelate, tetracycline (HCl), verapamil (HCl). Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.
Mechanism Of Action: The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Parathyroid hormone (secreted from the parathyroid gland) regulates the resorption of Ca2+ from bone. Calcitonin stimulates incorporation of calcium in bone, although this process is largely independent of calcitonin. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast.
Pregnancy: NA Lactation: NA Lab: NA Food: NA
Typical usage: Zinc is used for treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency and its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, and slow wound healing. It is also used for boosting the immune system, treating the common cold and recurrent ear infections, and preventing lower respiratory infections. It is also used for malaria and other diseases caused by parasites. Zinc is also used for an eye disease called macular degeneration, for night blindness, and for cataracts. It is also used for asthma; diabetes; high blood pressure; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); and skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and acne.
Side Effects: Taking high amounts of zinc is likely unsafe. High doses above the recommended amounts might cause fever, coughing, stomach pain, fatigue, and many other problems.
Drug Interaction: Tell your doctor of all prescription and nonprescription medication you may use. Do not start or stop any medicine without doctor or pharmacist approval.
Mechanism Of Action: Zinc is needed for the proper growth and maintenance of the human body. It is found in several systems and biological reactions, and it is needed for immune function, wound healing, blood clotting, thyroid function. Zinc plays a key role in maintaining vision, and it is present in high concentrations in the eye. Zinc deficiency can alter vision, and severe deficiency can cause changes in the retina (the back of the eye where an image is focused).
No substitutes found