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There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
There is positive evidence of risk to a breastfed infant or to breastmilk production, but the benefits of use in breastfeeding mothers may be acceptable despite the risk to the infant (e.g. if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective).
Typical usage: Hypertension. Pulmonary oedema. Oliguria in acute or chronic renal failure.
Side Effects: Photosensitivity, Skin rashes, Ototoxicity, Nephrocalcinosis, Hyponatremia, Urinary retention, Dizziness, Blurred vision, Hypokalemia, Cardiac arrhythmias, CHO intolerance, Hypomagnesemia, Hyperosmolar non-ketotic precoma, deafness, Hypocalcemic tetany, Ototoxicity, Hypochloremic alkalosis.
Drug Interaction: Furosemide is known to interact with other drugs like Aliskiren, Amikacin (Sulphate), Arbekacin, Caffeine, Calcium Gluconate, Captopril, Carbamazepine, Cefaclor (Monohydrate), Cefazolin, Cefotaxime, Ceftizoxime (Na).
Mechanism Of Action: Furosemide inhibits reabsorption of Na and chloride mainly in the medullary portion of the ascending Loop of Henle. Excretion of potassium and ammonia is also increased while uric acid excretion is reduced. It increases plasma-renin levels and secondary hyperaldosteronism may result.
Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
Studies in breastfeeding mothers have demonstrated that there is significant and documented risk to the infant based on human experience, or it is a medication that has a high risk of causing significant damage to an infant. The risk of using the drug in breastfeeding women clearly outweighs any possible benefit from breastfeeding. The drug is contraindicated in women who are breastfeeding an infant.
Typical usage: Hypertension. Oedema. Due to CCF. Hepatic cirrhosis or nephrotic syndrome. Hypokalaemia.
Side Effects: Nausea, stomach upset, skin rash, acute toxicity.
Drug Interaction: If You Are Currently Using Any Of These Medications, Tell Your Doctor Or Pharmacist Before Starting Spironolactone. Blood Pressure Lowering Medicines (Antihypertensives) Such As Ace Inhibitors (Such As Captopril) And Angiotensin-Ii Receptor Antagonists (Such As Losartan Or Valsartan) Chlorpropamide (A Diabetes Medication) Digoxin (For Some Heart Conditions) Ciclosporin Or Tacrolimus (Used In Organ Transplants, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Eczema Or Psoriasis) Fludrocortisone (A Corticosteroid) Warfarin (A Medication To Thin The Blood) Other Potassium-Sparing Diuretics (Water Tablets) Lithium (Used To Treat Some Mental Illnesses) Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (Nsaids) Such As Mefenamic Acid Aspirin (For Pain, Inflammation And High Temperature) Potassium Supplements Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine) (For Low Blood Pressure Or Heart Problems) An Anaesthetic Carbenoxolone (For Ulcers)
Mechanism Of Action: Treatment of oedema or abdominal swelling (ascites), due to liver disease (cirrhosis) Treatment of malignant ascites, a cancerous disease in which the abdomen swells up Treatment of symptoms in nephrotic syndrome, a kidney disorder that leads to symptoms such as protein in the urine Treatment of congestive heart failure, a condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs Diagnosis and treatment of the symptoms of primary hyperaldosteronism, a condition in which the adrenal glands produce to much hormone
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