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Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
There are no controlled studies in breastfeeding women, however the risk of untoward effects to a breastfed infant is possible; or, controlled studies show only minimal non-threatening adverse effects. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant.
Typical usage: Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus. Prophylaxis and treatment of malaria.
Side Effects: Photosensitivity, tinnitus, myopathy. Psychosis, seizures, leucopenia and rarely aplastic anaemia, hepatitis, GI upsets, dizziness, hypokalaemia, headache, pruritus, urticaria, difficulty in visual accommodation. Loss of hair, bleaching of hair pigment, bluish-black pigmentation of the mucous membranes and skin, photosensitivity, tinnitus, reduced hearing, nerve deafness, neuromyopathy, and myopathy, including cardiomyopathy.
Drug Interaction: Cimetidine may increase serum levels of hydroxychloroquine. Avoid digoxin and alcohol. Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias when used with halofantrine. Concurrent use with mefloquine may increase the risk of convulsions.
Mechanism Of Action: Hydroxychloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial with actions similar to those of chloroquine but is mainly used in the treatment of SLE and rheumatoid arthritis. It interferes with digestive vacuole function within susceptible malarial parasites by increasing pH and interrupting with lysosomal degradation of haemoglobin thus impeding normal cell function of sensitive parasites.
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Showing 5 of 17