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Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
There is positive evidence of risk to a breastfed infant or to breastmilk production, but the benefits of use in breastfeeding mothers may be acceptable despite the risk to the infant (e.g. if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective).
Typical usage: Psoriasis, skin diseases.
Side Effects: Photosensitivity, skin irritation.
Drug Interaction: Tell your doctor of all prescription and nonprescription medication you may use. Do not start or stop any medicine without doctor or pharmacist approval.
Mechanism Of Action: By increasing the capacity of corneocytes to bind water, Allantoin reinforces the skinĚs natural protective barrier and improves its moisture retention, providing a smoothening effect to the skin. Due to its keratolytic activity, Allantoin removes corneocytes by loosening the intercellular kit or the desmosomes (protein bridges) that maintain the adhesion of corneocytes to each other. Thus the surface of the skin is smoother, softer and becomes suppler.
Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
There are no controlled studies in breastfeeding women, however the risk of untoward effects to a breastfed infant is possible; or, controlled studies show only minimal non-threatening adverse effects. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant.
Typical usage: Acne vulgaris, babesiosis, bacterial infections, bacterial vaginosis, dental infections, endocarditis, hidradenitis suppurativa, intra-abdominal infections, malaria, osteomyelitis, pelvic infections, peritonitis, pulmonary infection, septic arthritis, septicaemia.
Side Effects: Elevated SGPT & SGOT, elevated alkaline phosphatase concentration, esophageal ulceration, pseudomembranous colitis, cardiac arrest, colonic ulceration, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, rashes, vaginitis, contact dermatitis.
Drug Interaction: Clindamycin is known to interact with other drugs like bamifylline, calcium gluconate, distigmine (Br), gentamicin, lincomycin (HCl), pancuronium (Br), physostigmine, rivastigmine, rocuronium (Br), sodium thiosulphate.
Mechanism Of Action: Systemic/vaginal clindamycin inhibits protein synthesis of bacteria by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits of the bacteria. Specifically, it binds primarily to the 23s RNA subunit. Topical clindamycin reduces free fatty acid concentrations on the skin and suppresses the growth of Propionibacterium acnes (Corynebacterium acnes) , an anaerobe found in sebaceous glands and follicles.
Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters).
Drug which has been taken by a large number of breastfeeding mothers without any observed increase in adverse effects in the infant. Controlled studies in breastfeeding women fail to demonstrate a risk to the infant and the possibility of harm to the breastfeeding infant is remote; or the product is not orally bioavailable in an infant.
Typical usage: Used in cosmetic products for the skin and the hair.
Side Effects: High doses of Vitamin E acetate can also cause nausea, diarrhea, stomach cramps, fatigue, weakness, headache, blurred vision, rash, and bruising and bleeding.
Drug Interaction: Vitamin E acetate is known to interact with other drugs like Amprenavir, Orlistat. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.
Mechanism Of Action: Vitamin E protects the cells against free radicals and prevents the peroxidation of body fats. It is also an effective moisturizing agent and improves the elasticity and smoothness of the skin.
No substitutes found