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Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
Drug which has been studied in a limited number of breastfeeding women without an increase in adverse effects in the infant; And/or, the evidence of a demonstrated risk which is likely to follow use of this medication in a breastfeeding woman is remote.
Typical usage: Allergic rhinitis, ocular symptoms like redness, lacrimation and itching. Urticaria, dermographism, atopic eczema and contact dermatitis, acute allergic reactions due to drugs, foods, insect bites.
Side Effects: Somnolence, insomnia, malaise, headache, dizziness, GI discomfort, dry mouth, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting; occasional hypersensitivity, epistaxis, pharyngitis, bronchospasm.
Drug Interaction: Risk of increased INR and epistaxis when taken together with warfarin. CNS depressants and anticholinergics may potentiate CNS depression of cetirizine.
Mechanism Of Action: Cetirizine is a potent and highly selective antagonist of the peripheral histamine H1-receptor on effector cells in the GI tract, blood vessels and respiratory tract.
Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
Studies in breastfeeding mothers have demonstrated that there is significant and documented risk to the infant based on human experience, or it is a medication that has a high risk of causing significant damage to an infant. The risk of using the drug in breastfeeding women clearly outweighs any possible benefit from breastfeeding. The drug is contraindicated in women who are breastfeeding an infant.
Typical usage: Nasal decongestant.
Side Effects: Nausea, stomach upset, skin rash, acute toxicity.
Drug Interaction: Allegra-D Should Not Be Taken With Monoamine Oxidase (Mao) Inhibitor Drugs Such As Phenelzine (Nardil) And Tranylcypromine (Parnate) Because Combining Pseudoephedrine With Mao Inhibitors Can Lead To Dangerous Increases In Blood Pressure And Other Serious Side Effects. Aluminum Containing Antacids (For Example, Maalox) Reduces The Absorption Of Fexofenadine. Therefore, Aluminum Containing Antacids And Fexofenadine Should Not Be Administered Together. Fruit Juices (Apple, Orange, Grapefruit) May Reduce The Absorption Of Fexofenadine, Andexofenadine Should Only Be Administered With Water.
Mechanism Of Action: Allegra-D is a combination of an antihistamine (fexofenadine) and a decongestant (pseudoephedrine). Fexofenadine is an oral, "second generation" antihistamine that is used to treat the signs and symptoms of allergy and hives. It is similar to the other second generation antihistamines loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec) and azelastine (Astelin). Histamine is a chemical that is responsible for many of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions, for example, swelling of the lining of the nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes. Histamine is released from histamine-storing cells (mast cells) and then attaches to other cells that have receptors for histamine. The attachment of the histamine to the receptors causes the cell to become "activated," releasing other chemicals that produce the effects that we associate with allergy (for example, sneezing). Fexofenadine blocks one type of receptor for histamine (the H1 receptor) and thus prevents activation of H1 receptor-containing cells by histamine. Unlike the first generation antihistamines, fexofenadine and other second-generation antihistamines do not readily enter the brain from the blood. Therefore, they cause less drowsiness and are called non-sedating antihistamines. Pseudoephedrine causes blood vessels in the nasal passages to narrow (vasoconstrict). Vasoconstriction reduces nasal congestion by preventing fluid from draining from blood vessels into nasal passages. The FDA approved Allegra-D in December 1997.
No substitutes found