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There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
There is positive evidence of risk to a breastfed infant or to breastmilk production, but the benefits of use in breastfeeding mothers may be acceptable despite the risk to the infant (e.g. if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective).
Typical usage: Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis.
Side Effects: Diarrhoea, nausea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, dizziness, rashes
Drug Interaction: May increase plasma concentrations of lithium and digoxin. Increased nephrotoxicity when used with diuretics or ciclosporin. Monitor serum potassium when used with potassium-sparing diuretics and ACE inhibitors. May enhance activity of anticoagulants
Mechanism Of Action: Aceclofenac, a phenylacetic acid derivative, has antiinflammatory and analgesic properties. It is a potent inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase which is involved in the production of prostaglandins.
Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
There are no controlled studies in breastfeeding women, however the risk of untoward effects to a breastfed infant is possible; or, controlled studies show only minimal non-threatening adverse effects. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant.
Typical usage: Ear pain, fever, headache, malaise, migraine, mild to moderate pain, pain, post-vaccine reaction, short-bowel syndrome.
Side Effects: Bronchospasm, blood dyscrasias, centribular necrosis, liver damage, hypoglycemic coma, hepatic necrosis, liver failure, skin rashes, GI adverse effects.
Drug Interaction: Paracetamol is known to interact with other drugs like alcohol, ascorbic acid, azilisartan medoxomil, busulphan, carbamazepine, chloramphenicol, cimetidine (HCl), diflunisal, interferon alpha, isoniazid, itopride (HCl), metoclopramide (HCl). Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.
Mechanism Of Action: Paracetamol is thought to act primarily in the CNS, increasing the pain threshold by inhibiting both isoforms of cyclooxygenase, COX-1, COX-2, and COX-3 enzymes involved in prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. Paracetamol indirectly blocks COX, and that this blockade is ineffective in the presence of peroxides. paracetamol is effective in the central nervous system and in endothelial cells but not in platelets and immune cells which have high levels of peroxides. The antipyretic properties of paracetamol are likely due to direct effects on the heat-regulating centres of the hypothalamus resulting in peripheral vasodilation, sweating and hence heat dissipation.