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Adequate and well-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of risk in later trimesters).
Drug which has been taken by a large number of breastfeeding mothers without any observed increase in adverse effects in the infant. Controlled studies in breastfeeding women fail to demonstrate a risk to the infant and the possibility of harm to the breastfeeding infant is remote; or the product is not orally bioavailable in an infant.
Typical usage: Folate-deficient. Megaloblastic anaemia. Prophylaxis of megaloblastic anemia in pregnancy. Prophylaxis of neural tube defect in pregnancy. Malabsorption syndromes. Antiepileptic therapy.
Side Effects: Neuropathy, bronchospasm, itchy skin eruptions, malaise.
Drug Interaction: Interacts with other drugs like deferoxamine, epoetin, fosphenytoin, methotrexate, sulphasalazine. These interactions are sometimes beneficial and sometimes may pose threats to life. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.
Mechanism Of Action: Folic acid, as it is biochemically inactive, is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase. These folic acid congeners are transported across cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis where they are needed to maintain normal erythropoiesis, synthesize purine and thymidylate nucleic acids, interconvert amino acids, methylate tRNA, and generate and use formate. Using vitamin B12 as a cofactor, folic acid can normalize high homocysteine levels by remethylation of homocysteine to methionine via methionine synthetase.
Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
There are no controlled studies in breastfeeding women, however the risk of untoward effects to a breastfed infant is possible; or, controlled studies show only minimal non-threatening adverse effects. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant.
Typical usage: peripheral neuropathy, megaloblastic anaemia
Side Effects: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.
Drug Interaction: Decreased GI tract absorption with neomycin, aminosalicylic acid, H2-blockers and colchicine. Reduced serum concentrations with oral contraceptives.
Mechanism Of Action: Mecobalamin is the neurologically active form of vitamin B12 and occurs as a water-soluble vitamin in the body. It is a cofactor in the enzyme methionine synthase, which functions to transfer methyl groups for the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine. In anaemia, it increases erythrocyte production by promoting nucleic acid synthesis in the bone marrow and by promoting maturation and division of erythrocytes.
Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
Drug which has been studied in a limited number of breastfeeding women without an increase in adverse effects in the infant; And/or, the evidence of a demonstrated risk which is likely to follow use of this medication in a breastfeeding woman is remote.
Typical usage: Anaemia, Deficiency states, Idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia, Isoniazid neuropathy, Oedema and ascites in cirrhosis of the liver, Premenstrual syndrome, Schizophrenia and other psychoses, Vitamin deficiency.
Side Effects: Dizziness, Drowsiness, Blurred vision, Pain, Burning.
Drug Interaction: None mentioned.
Mechanism Of Action: Vitamin B6 is the collective term for a group of three related compounds, pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxal (PL) and pyridoxamine (PM), and their phosphorylated derivatives, pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP), pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). Although all six of these compounds should technically be referred to as vitamin B6, the term vitamin B6 is commonly used interchangeably with just one of them, pyridoxine. Vitamin B6, principally in its biologically active coenzyme form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, is involved in a wide range of biochemical reactions, including the metabolism of amino acids and glycogen, the synthesis of nucleic acids, hemogloblin, sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids, and the synthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
No substitutes found