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Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
Drug which has been taken by a large number of breastfeeding mothers without any observed increase in adverse effects in the infant. Controlled studies in breastfeeding women fail to demonstrate a risk to the infant and the possibility of harm to the breastfeeding infant is remote; or the product is not orally bioavailable in an infant.
Typical usage: Respiratory, genito-urinary, skin and soft tissue, ENT infections due to susceptible strains of Gram negative organisms like H.influenzae, E-coli, P.mirabilis and N. gonorrhoea.
Side Effects: Abscesses, acute bronchitis, bacteriuria, bronchitis, carbuncles, cellulitis, chronic bronchitis, cystitis, dental abscess, dental abscess (short-course), endocarditis, furunculosis, gonorrhoea, gynecological infections, haemophilus influenzae infections, dizziness, headache, anorexia, iarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, maculopapular rash, rashes, gastritis, indigestion, urticarial skin rash.
Drug Interaction: Amoxicillin is known to interact with other drugs like chloramphenicol, methotrexate, probenecid, rabeprazole, sodium picosulphate, tetracycline (HCl), warfarin (Na).
Mechanism Of Action: Amoxicillin binds to penicillin-binding protein 1A (PBP-1A) located inside the bacterial cell well. Penicillins acylate the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain by opening the lactam ring. This inactivation of the enzyme prevents the formation of a cross-link of two linear peptidoglycan strands, inhibiting the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that amoxicllin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
Studies in breastfeeding mothers have demonstrated that there is significant and documented risk to the infant based on human experience, or it is a medication that has a high risk of causing significant damage to an infant. The risk of using the drug in breastfeeding women clearly outweighs any possible benefit from breastfeeding. The drug is contraindicated in women who are breastfeeding an infant.
Typical usage: Bacterial infections, Myeloablative therapy followed by bone marrow transplantation, Respiratory tract infections, Urinary tract infection.
Side Effects: Diarrhea, Fever, Maculopapular rash, Urticaria, Increase in serum transaminase.
Drug Interaction: Allopurinol may reduce renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin thus increasing the serum levels of amoxicillin. Concurrent use may reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives.
Mechanism Of Action: Clavulanic acid competitively and irreversibly inhibits a wide variety of beta-lactamases, commonly found in microorganisms resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins. Binding and irreversibly inhibiting the beta-lactamase results in a restauration of the antimicrobial activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against lactamase-secreting-resistant bacteria. By inactivating beta-lactamase (the bacterial resistance protein), the accompanying penicillin/cephalosporin drugs may be made more potent as well.