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There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
There is positive evidence of risk to a breastfed infant or to breastmilk production, but the benefits of use in breastfeeding mothers may be acceptable despite the risk to the infant (e.g. if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective).
Typical usage: Stomach Cramps
Side Effects: Nausea, stomach upset, skin rash, acute toxicity.
Drug Interaction: Your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with your doctor or pharmacist first.Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use.This medication may interfere with certain laboratory tests (including urine ketone test), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.
Mechanism Of Action: Antispasmodics are anticholinergic agents that inhibit involuntary detrusor contractions.There are two types of nicotinic receptors: muscle type (mainly in skeletal neuromuscular junction) or neuronal type (in autonomic ganglia, sensory nerve terminals and other regions in the central nervous system). There are three types of muscarinic receptors M1, M2, M3. M1 receptors (neural) mainly located in the central nervous system, M2 receptors (cardiac) in atria and conducting tissue, and M3 receptors (glandular) in exocrine glands, smooth muscle and vascular endothelium.Urinary antispasmodics can be nonselective anticholinergic agents, ones that can bind to all the receptors of the cholinergic system (nicotinic and muscarinic receptors) or they can selectively block M3 (muscarinic) receptors. Selective M3 receptor blockers cause less drowsiness compared to the nonselective anticholinergic drugs, but they can cause more constipation, dry mouth and blurred vision.
Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
There are no controlled studies in breastfeeding women, however the risk of untoward effects to a breastfed infant is possible; or, controlled studies show only minimal non-threatening adverse effects. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant.
Typical usage: Dysmenorrhoea, fever, inflammation, juvenile chronic arthritis, menorrhagia, migraine, musculoskeletal disorders, osteoarthritis, pain, post-operative pain, post-partum pain, rheumatoid arthritis.
Side Effects: Diarrhoea, peripheral edema, urticaria, GI bleeding, proteinuria, aplastic anemia, epidermal necrolysis, jaundice, nephrotic syndrome, interstitial nephritis, papillary necrosis, hemolysis, proctocolitis, enteritis, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, skin rashes, maculopapular rash, hematuria, elevation of liver enzymes.
Drug Interaction: Mefenamic acid is known to interact with other drugs like sulfapyridine, torasemide. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.
Mechanism Of Action: Mefenamic acid binds the prostaglandin synthetase receptors COX-1 and COX-2, inhibiting the action of prostaglandin synthetase. As these receptors have a role as a major mediator of inflammation or a role for prostanoid signaling in activity-dependent plasticity, the symptoms of pain are temporarily reduced.
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Showing 5 of 19