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There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
There is positive evidence of risk to a breastfed infant or to breastmilk production, but the benefits of use in breastfeeding mothers may be acceptable despite the risk to the infant (e.g. if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective).
Typical usage: All grades of essential hypertension and renovascular hypertension. Adjunct in congestive heart failure.
Side Effects: Initial hypotension may be severe and prolonged. Dizziness, headache, fatigue, persistent dry cough, abnormal taste, lassitude, rash, neutropenia, renal impairment or failure.
Drug Interaction: Patients receiving diuretics may experience excessive reduction in blood pressure when enalapril is started. Close supervision for at least 2 hours after the start of enalapril and until blood pressure is stable is recommended if the diuretic cannot be stopped. Enalapril may increase potassium levels (hyperkalemia) in blood. Therefore, there is an increased risk of hyperkalemia when enalapril is given with potassium supplements or drugs that increase potassium levels (for example, spironolactone [Aldactone]). There have been reports of increased lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid) levels when lithium is used in combination with ACE inhibitors. The reason for this interaction is not known, but the increased levels may lead to toxicity from lithium. There have been reports that aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Children's Advil/Motrin, Medipren, Motrin, Nuprin, PediaCare Fever, etc.), indomethacin(Indocin, Indocin-SR), and naproxen (Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn, Aleve) may reduce the effects of ACE inhibitors.
Mechanism Of Action: Enalapril is de-esterified into the active enalaprilat resulting in potent inhibition of ACE thus leading to reduced levels of angiotensin II and aldosterone. Clinically, BP is reduced, salt and water retention is corrected. Ventricular hypertrophy is reversed. Renal blood flow is increased but in patients with renal impairment there may be oliguria or acute renal failure.
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Showing 5 of 64