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Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
There are no controlled studies in breastfeeding women, however the risk of untoward effects to a breastfed infant is possible; or, controlled studies show only minimal non-threatening adverse effects. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant.
Typical usage: Tuberculosis.
Side Effects: Hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, lupus erythematosus, peripheral neuropathy, gynecomastia, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, convulsions, coma, seizures, urinary retention, dizziness, hyperreflexia, diarrhea, skin rashes.
Drug Interaction: Isoniazid is known to interact with other drugs like alcohol, alprazolam, aluminium hydroxide and oxide, bovine insulin, bromazepam, calciferol, carbamazepine, chlorzoxazone, cycloserine, diazepam, digitoxin, disulfiram, enflurane, estazolam, ethionamide, ethosuximide, fosphenytoin, gestodene, human insulin, insulin glulisine, ketoconazole.
Mechanism Of Action: Isoniazid is a prodrug and must be activated by bacterial catalase. Specficially, activation is associated with reduction of the mycobacterial ferric KatG catalase-peroxidase by hydrazine and reaction with oxygen to form an oxyferrous enzyme complex. Once activated, isoniazid inhibits the synthesis of mycoloic acids, an essential component of the bacterial cell wall. At therapeutic levels isoniazid is bacteriocidal against actively growing intracellular and extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms.
There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
There is positive evidence of risk to a breastfed infant or to breastmilk production, but the benefits of use in breastfeeding mothers may be acceptable despite the risk to the infant (e.g. if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or for a serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective).
Typical usage: Epilepsy (monotherapy), Iron-deficiency anaemia with chronic renal failure, Leprosy, Meningitis, Meningitis prophylaxis, Mycobacterial infection, Paget's disease of bone, Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infection
Side Effects: Nausea, Vomiting, Anorexia, Abdominal discomfort, Orange coloration of secretions.
Drug Interaction: Epilepsy (monotherapy), Iron-deficiency anaemia with chronic renal failure, Leprosy, Meningitis, Meningitis prophylaxis, Mycobacterial infection, Paget's disease of bone, Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infection
Mechanism Of Action: Rifampicin acts via the inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, leading to a suppression of RNA synthesis and cell death.
No substitutes found