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Composition

SALTS:    Ethambutol Hydrochloride (275 mg) | Isoniazid 1 (Captabs) (75 mg) | Pyrazinamide (400 mg) | Rifampicin (150 mg)

Salt Information

Ethambutol Hydrochloride

Pregnancy: C Lactation: L3 Lab: NA Food: NA

Typical usage: Acute leukemia, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection, tuberculosis.

Side Effects: Vision impairment, stevens-Johnson syndrome, skin inflammation, redness of the skin, itching and joint pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, stomach upset and abdominal pain, fever, uneasiness, headache, dizziness, mental confusion, decrease in white blood cells and platelets.

Drug Interaction: Ethambutol is known to interact with other drugs like aluminium hydroxide and oxide, bromazepam. These interactions are sometimes beneficial and sometimes may pose threats to life. Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required.

Mechanism Of Action: Ethambutol inhibits arabinosyl transferases which is involved in cell wall biosynthesis. By inhibiting this enzyme, the bacterial cell wall complex production is inhibited. This leads to an increase in cell wall permeability.

Isoniazid 1 (Captabs)

Pregnancy: C Lactation: L4 Lab: NA Food: NA

Typical usage: Acute leukemia, Mycobacterial infection, Prophylaxis of TB, Tuberculosis, Vestibular disorders.

Side Effects: Nausea, Vomiting, Tachycardia, Convulsions, Coma, Seizures, Urinary retention, Dizziness, Hyperreflexia, Slurred speech.

Drug Interaction: Your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with your doctor or pharmacist first.

Mechanism Of Action: Isoniazid is a prodrug and must be activated by bacterial catalase. Specficially, activation is associated with reduction of the mycobacterial ferric KatG catalase-peroxidase by hydrazine and reaction with oxygen to form an oxyferrous enzyme complex. Once activated, isoniazid inhibits the synthesis of mycoloic acids, an essential component of the bacterial cell wall. At therapeutic levels isoniazid is bacteriocidal against actively growing intracellular and extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms. Specifically isoniazid inhibits InhA, the enoyl reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, by forming a covalent adduct with the NAD cofactor. It is the INH-NAD adduct that acts as a slow, tight-binding competitive inhibitor of InhA.

Pyrazinamide

Pregnancy: C Lactation: L5 Lab: NA Food: NA

Typical usage: Tuberculosis.

Side Effects: Anorexia, Fever, Malaise, Arthralgia, Nausea and vomiting.

Drug Interaction: Excretion may be blocked by probenecid.

Mechanism Of Action: Pyrazinamide has bactericidal action against M. tuberculosis in acid environment present in macrophages and inflammed tissue. Together with rifampicin provides greatest sterilising action with reduction in relapse rate. Reduces tubular secretion of uric acid.

Rifampicin

Pregnancy: D Lactation: L4 Lab: NA Food: NA

Typical usage: Epilepsy (monotherapy), Iron-deficiency anaemia with chronic renal failure, Leprosy, Meningitis, Meningitis prophylaxis, Mycobacterial infection, Paget's disease of bone, Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infection

Side Effects: Nausea, Vomiting, Anorexia, Abdominal discomfort, Orange coloration of secretions.

Drug Interaction: Epilepsy (monotherapy), Iron-deficiency anaemia with chronic renal failure, Leprosy, Meningitis, Meningitis prophylaxis, Mycobacterial infection, Paget's disease of bone, Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infection

Mechanism Of Action: Rifampicin acts via the inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, leading to a suppression of RNA synthesis and cell death.

No substitutes found